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Types Of Deer, The Best Guide

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There are lots of types of deer. Cervids belong to the cloven-hoofed family and are therefore mammals. In these animals, it is notable that the males have antlers on their heads. These antlers are shed every year. This is probably done so that the animal can regain its strength. New antlers quickly appear and are sometimes even larger than the previous ones. The larger the antlers and the more branches they have, the healthier the animal is. Older animals have more branches and are often the boss in the group.

The smallest deer is the poodoo that grows only 38 inches tall. The largest animal is the moose. It grows more than 2 meters tall. The male deer is called a buck and the female is called a doe. In deer we call them buck and doe. And with the moose we call them bull and cow.

Their coats have short hairs. They are agile animals with long legs. So they can run away quickly if necessary. The young animals have spots so they are less conspicuous to their enemies.

You may also want to know which types of eagles are on our planet.

Species, types of deer

The animals live mostly in forests and woods. Some species live on grassy plains or near swamps. We can divide them into 4 species :

-muntjac deer

-water deer

-Mock deer, roe deer

-true deer

Crested deer

The Crested deer (Elaphodus cephalophus) is a cloven-hoofed from the family of cervids (Cervidae), it is the only species of the genus Elaphodus. These types of deer live in southeastern Asia. They have a length of 110-160 cm, with a tail of 7-16 cm and a shoulder height of 50-70 cm. They weigh 17-50 kg. After a gestation period of 6 months, 1-2 young are born. They have a lifespan of about 15 years. They eat fruit, grass, twigs and leaves.

Chinese dipper

The Chinese dipper (Hydropotes inermis) is the only species in the subfamily of dippers (Hydropotinae) of the family of cervids (Cervidae). It is found in China and Korea. These types of deer were introduced to Britain in the late 19th century. A population still occurs there in East Anglia.

Sumphjort

The Sumphjort lives in marshes, reed-covered riverbanks, grasslands and meadows. These types of deer show themselves at dusk. They then eat mainly grass, sedge, carrots, willow leaves and twigs and crops.

It is a primitive cervid, lacking antlers. The male does have two small tusks (about eight inches long). The ears are remarkably large. The muzzle and eyes are dark in color. It has a reddish-brown summer coat, which is replaced in winter by a thick grayish-brown coat.

The Sumphjort grows to be about 100 cm long, 50 to 60 cm high and weighs between 9 and 15 kg. The tail length is 6 to 7.5 cm. Males grow larger than females: males weigh between 11 and 14 kg, females between 9 and 11½ kg.

The male is territorial during the rutting season. In territorial fights, he uses his tusks. The water deer lives solitary. However, several roe deer may gather in food-rich areas.

The rutting season falls in December. Young are born between May and July, after a gestation period of about 176 days. The female gives birth to 2 to 4 (in China up to 6) fawns per litter. These weigh 800 grams at birth. At birth, the calves have a lightly spotted coat. The spots disappear after a month or two. These types of deer are weaned after two months and are sexually mature after six months. The Chinese Sumphjort reaches a maximum age of 11 years.

Moose

The moose (Alces alces) is the largest surviving species of deer: it grows to at least the size of a horse. It is the only surviving species in the genus Alces.

The moose is a very large animal with a remarkable snout. Its fur is rough and gray-brown in color. It moults in the spring. Its legs are long, allowing it to walk in deep snow, and are grayish white. In females (cows), this color extends to the tail. Adult males (bulls) have a beard and antlers. These types of deer have a highly developed sense of smell and hearing. However, vision is limited.

The moose has a head-rump length of 200 to 290 centimeters. The female is about 25% smaller than the male. The male has a shoulder height of 180 to 220 centimeters and a body weight of 320 to 800 kilograms; the female has a shoulder height of 150 to 170 centimeters and a weight of 275 to 375 kilograms. The tail is quite small, becoming only 7 to 10 centimeters long. The antlers can easily reach a wingspan of 2 meters.

Moose bulls generally have broad, leaf-shaped hoe antlers with short protrusions, but there are also individuals with branch-shaped rod antlers. The occurrence of both types is geographically determined: for example, bulls in southern Scandinavia more often have rod antlers and in northern Scandinavia more often have hoe antlers. In particular, large hoe antlers are popular hunting trophies. The antlers are shed each year between December and March. It will regrow in April, and in August or September or October the bark skin is shed.

Food and habitat

The moose lives mainly on shoots and twigs of trees such as Scots pine. It also eats the bark of trees such as willow and rattle poplar. In summer, its diet consists largely of larger herbs, leaves and aquatic plants; in autumn it eats grains more often. In winter, an elk eats an average of about ten kilograms of twigs and shoots.

The moose is found mainly in coniferous forests. These types of deer prefer more marshy areas such as river valleys and lakes. The moose is an excellent swimmer and can regularly be found in the water. In winter, it is found in drier areas.

The range of the moose consists of North America and the northern part of Europe and Asia. In Europe, it is found in Scandinavia, the Baltic states,Finland, Poland and Russia. Recently, the species has also re-established itself in Germany. In North America, it is found throughout the forest region of Canada and Alaska, in the northeastern United States and in the northern Rocky Mountains. It can be a danger to traffic in certain parts, especially during the rutting season, when they are most aggressive. Warning signs have been posted in wooded areas for this reason.

In 1910, ten moose were introduced from North America to Fiordland National Park in New Zealand. It was long assumed that the animals died without offspring. After several unconfirmed sightings over the years, hair finds in 2002 showed that moose still live in New Zealand, albeit in very small numbers.

Social behavior and reproduction

Elk generally live solitary lives. In winter, however, These types of deer may gather in small mixed herds. An adult female is the leader in these groups. Most moose will not migrate, but in Russia the animal can travel as much as 150 kilometers from summer to winter ranges. During the rutting season, a male migrates with a female for several days.

Calves are born after a gestation period of 235 days. Young females usually give birth to only one calf; older females more often give birth to twins. Triplets also occur. Elk females can still be pregnant when they are 20 years old. The calf has a reddish-brown coat. After two to three days, the young can follow its mother.

The calf weighs about 11 to 16 kilograms at birth. Within a month, it doubles its body weight. After that, it grows one kilogram a day. At the end of the first autumn, the male will start to grow its first antlers.

The calf will stay with its mother until 10 or 15 days before the mother will give birth to the next calf. Then the mother will chase her young away. The moose generally becomes sexually mature in its second year. It can reach a maximum age of 27 years.

True deer

The Birth

The mating season of deer is also sometimes called the rutting season, the doe (the female) is expecting in December. The next spring she gives birth to her calf (her young). When the calf is born the mother erases all traces of the birth. She does this because then the predators no longer smell her calf.


The calf also has to be able to walk, so it tries to stand on its own legs right away. The calf immediately looks for its mother’s nipples to drink. Two hours later, it dares to take a few steps. It follows its mother all the time, imitating her in everything. Such as: it joins her when she goes to sleep, when she goes to eat grass, when she goes to drink water and so on. Calves drink with their mother for 3 to 4 months.

types of deer

Appearance

The deer has a fur coat with large or small white spots. The male deer develops antlers in April or May. The older the deer gets, the more the antlers branch out. In the fall, the bark on the antlers slowly hardens and begins to fall off. The deer then starts sweeping against tree branches or rocks to get rid of the bark. And when the deer rubs on the bark of its antlers, you can see a little blood.

And where the bark of the antlers is completely off, the antlers look like two branches. Deer fight with their antlers. They do that because they want to peck at something such as; an area, food, and so on. There is always something to peck at. In March or April the male loses his antlers, then you cannot tell the males and females apart.

Food and Drink

Deer eat all day from morning to evening. They eat grass then, lowering their heads to look for fresh grass.
They also eat young tree leaves, but then they sometimes have to stand on their toes to reach them. The deer also like a nice carrot, corn, bread or pumpkins. Food, of course, requires defecation; deer droppings are small, hard balls. And the deer drink water.

In the winter time it is not easy or to find food. Often then they have to eat dry grass, heather or bark from a tree. Deer are sometimes food themselves, but for a wolf. When the deer loses its antlers mice and squirrels gnaw on those antlers so that is also food for them.